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Up until now, the vaccine has been tested on rats and non-human primates. Biologically, non human primates are said to be closer to humans than rats. The success rate of the cocaine vaccine results has urged the researchers to test the vaccine on humans. The tests conducted on rats injected with the virus and cocaine showed less hyperactive behavior than those mice which were given just cocaine.
Researchers attempted to study the effectiveness of the cocaine vaccine in non-human primates by measuring the amount of cocaine attaching itself to the dopamine transporter. If cocaine reaches the brain it prevents the transporter from carrying dopamine out and attaches itself to the dopamine transporter. This keeps the neurotransmitter active in producing a drug high.
An isotope was attached to the dopamine transporter to measure the amount of tracer attaching to the dopamine receptor in presence or absence of cocaine. The activity of the tracer was seen using a Positron Emission Tomography (PET). There was no change in tracer activity in vaccinated and non- vaccinated primates when cocaine was not given. There was a significant drop in activity of tracer when cocaine was given, in non-vaccinated animals.
This means that in the absence of vaccine, cocaine attaches itself to the dopamine receptor by replacing the tracer. The cocaine occupancy of the dopamine receptor in vaccinated primates was reduced to 20% by use of the vaccine. Previous researches have shown that to produce high cocaine should occupy 47% of the dopamine transporter.
The vaccine was further reported to have lasted 13 weeks in rats and 7 weeks in non-human primates. Researches do not know the amount of vaccine shots that would be required for humans to make it effective. With preliminary results being so satisfying, conducting human trials in near future for the cocaine vaccine gives hope to the cocaine addicts in Lyndhurst who want to desperately stop using.
Thousands of people in Lyndhurst suffer from cocaine addiction, and this has serious consequences as far as healthcare expenses and fatalities are concerned. There are several treatments for cocaine addiction in Lyndhurst. As far as medications are concerned, methadone works well with heroin addiction, but unfortunately, there is no such alternative for cocaine addiction.
That is why recently scientists have been working on developing a cocaine vaccine. Like methadone, a cocaine vaccine may be able to prevent the pleasurable sensations associated with the addictive.
Drug Addiction affects everyone because it affects society as a whole. The consequence to our economy is about $150 Billion dollars. The impact on our loved ones is 125,000 deaths. These numbers belong to year 2003 and they keep increasing every year. More than 20 Million people in our country need treatment for substance abuse, right now.
After researching treatment, insurance coverage, treatment accessibility, our recent society problems and its relation with addiction itself, we see treatment as a gift that you give yourself. Everyone could benefit from taking time out of their stressful routine and reassess their lives and what is important to them.
Sometimes our search for pleasure and pain avoidance contributes to our addictive cycle. Our best thinking when we are in our addictive patterns gets us in more trouble and the chronicity of addiction continues.
The contingency management therapy uses a point based system. It rewards patients when they have a negative drug test and can exchange their points with healthy living items. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral interventions help enhance coping skills of life stressors and modify expectations and behavior of patients that have had problems with substance abuse.
Some medication like Clonidine and Buprenorphine are also used which help minimize the symptoms. Buprenorphine is an attractive treatment drug in comparison to others as it is less likely to cause overdose problems. It also causes less physical dependence, minimizing withdrawal symptoms when patients discontinue the use.
Some claim that the most effective drug that blocks the effects of heroin is the methadone. It has a proven record success to eliminate withdrawal symptoms. It does not intoxicate or sedate when prescribed properly. Also, methadone suppresses narcotic withdrawal for up to 26 hours. Most importantly, it relieves craving, which is a major reason for relapse.
Treatment for Heroin addiction in Lyndhurst is more effective if identified in its early stages. Although the actual treatment may differ according to individual, methadone is a well known Heroin treatment that reduces dependency on the dug and reduces the effects of heroin withdrawal. Other medications may also be prescribed by a medical professional who works at a reputable rehabilitation facility.